我们离STO还有多远?- 推动STO大规模应用的要素分析

原文:What We Need To Enable the Security Token Thesis

作者:Jesus Rodriguez


编译:Legal Consensus


Security tokens are called to become one of the hottest trends in cryptocurrencies in the next few years. If you are working in the space, it feels like the early days of Bitcoin when the main components of the infrastructure for digital currencies were just being conceived and nobody seems to have all the right answers. In some sense, we are at that stage in the security tokens market. The elements of what will become the platforms for security tokens are just being imagined, the market theory for security tokens is being architected and the first generation of platforms and products is just being launched. From that perspective, there couldn’t be amore exciting time to join the security token ecosystem.



Recently, Professor Stephen McKeon from the University of Oregon wrote a brilliant essay titledThe Security Token Thesis in which he explained some of the axiomatic principles that will guide the security tokens market. Professor McKeon listed eight main features that will be required in order to improve the wide spread adoption of security tokens:

最近,俄勒冈大学的Stephen McKeon教授撰写了一篇名为“证券型通证理论”的精彩文章,其中他解释了一些指导证券型通证的公理原则。 McKeon教授列举了为改进证券型通证大规模应用所需的八个主要功能:


  • 24/7 Markets / 全天候无休的市场
  • Fractional Ownership / 部分所有权
  • Rapid Settlement / 快速结算
  • Reductionin Direct Costs / 直接成本的降低
  • Increased Liquidity and Market Depth / 增加流动性和市场深度
  • Automated Compliance / 自动合规
  • Asset Interoperability / 资产互操作性
  • Expansionof the Design Space for Security Contracts / 证券合约设计空间的延展


In order to enable the afore-mentioned features, the security token ecosystem will need technological building blocks that interoperate with each other in order to build cohesive economic dynamics. While the initial wave of innovation in the space is just getting started, there are already a series of components that I consider foundational to the success of the security token ecosystem. Here are some of my favorites:



a) Exchanges/交易所

b) Tokenization Platforms/通证化平台

c) Security Token Standards/证券型通证标准

d) Liquidity Providers/流动性提供者

e) Off-Chain Enforcers/链下执行者

f) Regulators/监管机构

g) Market Derivatives/市场衍生品


01 Exchanges/交易所

The security token exchanges are coming! Security token exchanges are a vital element to enable the tradeability of tokenized assets under the right regulatory framework. While there are no lack of options for listing and trading utility tokens, the options for security tokens have been non-existent thus far. Platforms such as OpenFinance and the famous tZero are addressing that challenge.



02 Tokenization Platforms/通证化平台

Many times, security tokens will be generated by tokenizing existing financial assets in the real world. The process of producing tokenized representations of financial assets is the role of the first generation of tokenization platforms. Products such as Polymath or Securitize are filling that gap.



03 Security Token Standards/证券型通证标准

For security tokens to be come mainstream, we are going to need standards that guide and regulate theirbehavior. If you think that every alternative asset in the world can have tokenized representation, then imagine what will happen if those representations follow different standards with no interoperability between then. Fortunately, initiatives like the Harbor R-Tokenand Polymath’s ST-20 are trying to address this challenge.

为了使证券型通证成为主流,我们将需要标准来指导和规范其行为。如果你认为世界上的每个可替代资产都可以通证化表示,那么请想象一下如果这些表示遵循不同的标准且在其之间没有交互操作性将会发生什么。幸运地是,Harbour R-Token和 Polymath的ST-20等计划正试图应对这一挑战。


04  Liquidity Providers/流动性提供者

Like any nascent financial market, security tokens are going to behave highly inefficiently defying some of the principles of the Efficient Market Hypothesis outlined by Eugene Fama in1965. The early stage of the security token exchanges and the relative small number of investor playing in the space raises some concerns in terms of the liquidity of security token products. To address that, security token platforms should build liquidity into their ecosystem by integrating with platforms like Bancor or BnkToTheFuture.

与任何刚起步的金融市场一样,证券型通证高度低效率的表现挑战了Eugene Fama在1965年概述的有效市场假设的一些原则。证券型通证交易所所处的早期阶段以及该领域内相对较少的投资者的参与引发了证券型通证产品在流动性方面的一些担忧。为了解决这个问题,证券型通证平台应该通过与像Bancor或BnkToTheFuture这样的平台进行聚合来为其生态系统建立流动性。


05 Off-Chain Enforcers/链下执行者

A lot of the lifecycle of security tokens takes place outside blockchains. Legally validating financialassets, auditing and certifying its value, validating accredited investors, distributing dividends, changing the ownership of an asset are all process that need to be executed in the real world. For that to happen, security token platforms should develop networks of off-chain partners such as law firms, trust companies, KYC-AML providers, auditors and many other parties that enforce the correct lifecycle of a security token.



06 Regulators/监管机构

A special type of off-chain enforcers are the regulatory arms of the different financial markets. For security tokens to become mainstream, the platforms powering the ecosystem should work with regulators such as the US SEC and CFTC in order to enforce compliance in the ecosystem.



07 Market Derivative/市场衍生品

Derivative products have not been particularly successful in the utility token space but are likely to play a prominent role in the security token ecosystem. Considering the link between security tokens and their underlying assets, its only logical that we will soon see derivative products that emulate financial market vehicles such as Exchange-Traded-Funds (ETF), asset-backed securities, options, futures andseveral others. Although not playing yet in the security tokens market, the guys from Firmo.Network have some very interesting technologies in this area.